Health, Safety, and Environment

Leading indicators and Lagging Indicators of Process Safety

What are the Leading Indicators? Leading indicators of process safety are proactive measures and metrics…

April 22, 2024

Flixborough Disaster

At about 1653 hours on Saturday, June 1, 1974, the Nypro (UK) site at Flixborough…

April 11, 2024

Crude Oil Types and Properties

Synthetic Crude Oil

Synthetic crude oil, also known as Syncrude, is a type of crude oil that is…

April 12, 2023

Specifications of Russian Crude Oil URALS

URALS crude oil is a type of crude oil that is produced in Russia. It…

March 21, 2023 1 Comment

Refinery Processes

Metal Catalyzed Coking in Naphtha Reforming Units

Metal Catalyzed Coking  (MCC) or Metal Carburization is a process in which carbon present in…

April 5, 2024

Metal Poisoning of Naphtha Reforming Catalyst

Metals are permanent poisons for the naphtha reforming catalysts and irreversibly damage the catalyst. Most…

April 4, 2024

Hydro Processing

Slurry Phase Hydrocracking Process

A slurry phase reactor (SPR) is used in petroleum refineries for the hydroprocessing of feeds…

September 25, 2023

History of Hydroprocessing

Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking are among the oldest catalytic processes used in petroleum refining. They were…

September 23, 2023

Oil Refining General Topics

What is SCADA and How Does it Work

SCADA stands for “Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition.” It is a type of industrial control…

May 7, 2023

Feedforward, Feedback and Cascade Controls

Feedback Control System A feedback control system is a control system that uses measurements of…

May 6, 2023